Interventionsundersøgelser:

I interventionsundersøgelser anvendes SDQ til at belyse den eventuelle effekt af en given indsats på børns trivsel og funktion. I den forbindelse er det en væsentlig udfordring at estimere, hvordan udviklingen ville have været, hvis indsatsen ikke var blevet ydet. Hvor det er praktisk muligt gennemføres derfor også før-efter målinger i en kontrolgruppe, der ikke modtager den pågældende indsats. Man vil her søge at gøre de to grupper så ens som muligt mht. andre forhold, der kunne tænkes at påvirke udfaldet. Ideelt set anvendes lodtrækning til at fordele børn i de to grupper.

Publicerede danske interventionsundersøgelser:

Andersen, S.C., M.K. Humlum, and A.B. Nandrup, Increasing instruction time in school does increase learning.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2016. 113(27): p. 7481-7484.

Gohr Månsson, A., et al., The effects of practicing target-shooting sport on the severity of inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive symptoms in children: a non-randomised controlled open-label study in Denmark.Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 2019. 73(4-5): p. 233-243.

Jensen, B., P. Jensen, and A.W. Rasmussen, Does professional development of preschool teachers improve children’s socio-emotional outcomes? Labour Economics, 2017. 45: p. 26-39.

Modin, L., I.S. Jakobsen, and M.S. Jakobsen, Conventional treatment of functional constipation has a positive impact on the behavioural difficulties in children with and without faecal incontinence. Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics, 2016. 105(6): p. e269-e274.

 

Kohorteundersøgelser:

I kohorteundersøgelser følges en gruppe børn over tid. Dermed kan man påvise eventuelle statistiske sammenhænge imellem f.eks. forhold i graviditet og opvækst og senere mental trivsel og funktion vurderet med SDQ. Det betyder imidlertid ikke, at der nødvendigvis er tale om årsag og virkning. En statistisk sammenhæng kan også skyldes fælles underliggende årsager, der ikke afdækkes i undersøgelsens design. Derfor er påvisning af manglende sammenhæng i virkeligheden en mere entydig observation. Kan en sammenhæng ikke påvises, peger det klart i retning af, at det undersøgte forhold ikke påvirker barnets senere trivsel og funktion væsentligt.

Publicerede kohorteundersøgelser med anvendelse af SDQ på dansk:

Barona, M., A.M. Nybo Andersen, and N. Micali, Childhood psychopathology in children of women with eating disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 2016. 134(4): p. 295-304.

Christensen, K.G., et al., Child behaviour and subsequent changes in body weight, composition and shape.PLoS ONE, 2019. 14(12).

Divan, H.A., et al., Cell phone use and behavioural problems in young children. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 2012. 66(6): p. 524-529

Elberling, H., et al., The prevalence of SDQ-measured mental health problems at age 5-7 years and identification of predictors from birth to preschool age in a Danish birth cohort: The Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2010. 19(9): p. 725-735

Fei, C. and J. Olsen, Prenatal exposure to perfluorinated chemicals and behavioral or coordination problems at age 7 years. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2011. 119(4): p. 573-578.

Grzeskowiak, L.E., et al., Prenatal antidepressant exposure and child behavioural outcomes at 7 years of age: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2016. 123(12): p. 1919-1928.

Hjortebjerg, D., et al., Exposure to road traffic noise and behavioral problems in 7-year-old children: A cohort study. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2016. 124(2): p. 228-234.

Hvolgaard Mikkelsen, S., et al., Maternal Caffeine Consumption during Pregnancy and Behavioral Disorders in 11-Year-Old Offspring: A Danish National Birth Cohort Study. Journal of Pediatrics, 2017. 189: p. 120-127.e1.

Kjaer D, Christensen J, Bech BH, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M, Olsen J. Preschool behavioral problems in children prenatally exposed to antiepileptic drugs – A follow-up study. Epilepsy and Behavior. 2013;29:407.

Kraft, J.T., et al., Prevalence and clinical correlates of tic disorders in a community sample of school-age children. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2012. 21(1): p. 5-13.

Madsen KB, Rask CU, Olsen J, Niclasen J, Obel C. Depression-related distortions in maternal reports of child behaviour problems. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2020;29:275

Madsen, K.B., et al., Characteristics of undiagnosed children with parent-reported ADHD behaviour. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2018. 27(2): p. 149-158.

Mikkelsen, S.H., et al., Parental body mass index and behavioral problems in their offspring: A Danish National Birth Cohort study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 2017. 186(5): p. 593-602.

Niclasen, J., et al., Is alcohol binge drinking in early and late pregnancy associated with behavioural and emotional development at age 7 years? European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2014. 23(12): p. 1175-1180.

Niclasen, J., et al., Associations between childhood hearing loss and behavioural and academic difficulties: A Danish cohort study. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 2016. 90: p. 91-98.

Niclasen, J., et al., Associations between otitis media and child behavioural and learning difficulties: Results from a Danish cohort. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 2016. 84: p. 12-20.

Overgaard, K.R., et al., The predictive validity of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2019. 28(5): p. 625-633.

Pedersen, L.H., et al., Prenatal antidepressant exposure and behavioral problems in early childhood – a cohort study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 2013. 127(2): p. 126-135.

Rimvall, M.K., et al., Predicting ADHD in school age when using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in preschool age: a longitudinal general population study, CCC2000. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2014.

Rodriguez, A., et al., Maternal adiposity prior to pregnancy is associated with ADHD symptoms in offspring: Evidence from three prospective pregnancy cohorts. International Journal of Obesity, 2008. 32(3): p. 550-557.

Skogerbø, A., et al., The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in 5-year-old children: A prospective cohort study on 1628 children. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2013. 120(9): p. 1042-1050.

Slemming, K., et al., The association between preschool behavioural problems and internalizing difficulties at age 10-12 years. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2010. 19(10): p. 787-795.

Stokholm, L., et al., Obstetric synthetic oxytocin use and subsequent hyperactivity/inattention problems in Danish children. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 2018. 97(7): p. 880-889.

Virk, J., et al., Pre-conceptual and prenatal supplementary folic acid and multivitamin intake, behavioral problems, and hyperkinetic disorders: A study based on the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Nutritional Neuroscience, 2018. 21(5): p. 352-360.

Zhu, J.L., et al., Infertility, infertility treatment and behavioural problems in the offspring. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 2011. 25(5): p. 466-477.

Zhu, J.L., et al., Parental smoking during pregnancy and ADHD in children: The Danish National Birth Cohort.Pediatrics, 2014. 134(2): p. e382-e388.

 

 

Tværsnitsundersøgelser:

Her undersøges der for statistisk sammenhæng imellem SDQ-scores og andre oplysninger indsamlet på nogenlunde samme tidspunkt.

Tværsnitsundersøgelser med anvendelse af SDQ på dansk:

Dalgaard, N.T., et al., The transmission of trauma in refugee families: associations between intra-family trauma communication style, children’s attachment security and psychosocial adjustment. Attachment and Human Development, 2016. 18(1): p. 69-89.

Dammeyer, J., Psychosocial development in a Danish population of children with cochlear implants and deaf and hard-of-hearing children. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 2009. 15(1): p. 50-58.

Egelund, T. and M. Lausten, Prevalence of mental health problems among children placed in out-of-home care in Denmark. Child and Family Social Work, 2009. 14(2): p. 156-165.

Gunnarsdóttir, H., et al., Relative deprivation in the Nordic countries – Child mental health problems in relation to parental financial stress. European Journal of Public Health, 2016. 26(2): p. 277-282.

Hammer-Helmich, L., et al., Mental health associations with eczema, asthma and hay fever in children: A cross-sectional survey. BMJ Open, 2016. 6(10).

Keilow, M., et al., The strengths and difficulties questionnaire and standardized academic tests: Reliability across respondent type and age. PLoS ONE, 2019. 14(7).

Kristensen, L.J., et al., Symptoms of emotional, behavioral, and social difficulties in the Danish population of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes – Results of a national survey. PLoS ONE, 2014. 9(5).

Nielsen SS, Norredam M, Christiansen KL, Obel C, Hilden J, Krasnik A. Mental health among children seeking asylum in Denmark–the effect of length of stay and number of relocations: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2008 Aug 19;8:293.

Olsen, N.J., et al., Child behavioural problems and body size among 2-6 year old children predisposed to overweight. Results from the “Healthy Start” study. PLoS ONE, 2013. 8(11).

Parkes, J., et al., Psychological problems in children with cerebral palsy: A cross-sectional European study.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 2008. 49(4): p. 405-413.

Pedersen, L.K., et al., Moebius sequence -a multidisciplinary clinical approach. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases, 2017. 12(1).

Peltonen, K., et al., Parental violence and adolescent mental health. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2010. 19(11): p. 813-822.

Reinholdt-Dunne, M.L., et al., Emotional difficulties in seventh grade children in Denmark. Scand J Psychol, 2011. 52(5): p. 433-9.

Sentenac, M., et al., Determinants of inclusive education of 8-12 year-old children with cerebral palsy in 9 European regions. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 2013. 34(1): p. 588-595.

Thorgaard, M.V., et al., Effects of maternal health anxiety on children’s health complaints, emotional symptoms, and quality of life. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2017. 26(5): p. 591-601.

 

For både tværsnitsundersøgelser og kohorteundersøgelser gælder det, at en årsagssammenhæng må forventes at medføre en statistisk sammenhæng. Men at omvendt en statistisk sammenhæng langt fra er ensbetydende med en årsagssammenhæng.
En ”risikofaktor” er alene defineret som en statistisk sammenhæng imellem et målbart fænomen og et uønsket udfald. En påvist risikofaktor er således ikke nødvendigvis en årsag. Det kan lige så vel være en anden konsekvens af en fælles underliggende faktor.

 

 

Undersøgelser af SDQ’s egenskaber

SDQ er et internationalt anvendt redskab. Der er lagt et stort arbejde i at gøre udgaverne på forskellige sprog indholdsmæssigt ens. Danske undersøgelser af SDQ’s egenskaber ligger da også i forlængelse af den viden, der er indhentet via tilsvarende undersøgelser i andre lande:

Arnfred J, Svendsen K, Rask C, Jeppesen P, Fensbo L, Houmann T, et al. Danish norms for the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. Dan Med J. 2019;66:A5546.

Niclasen, J., et al., Psychometric properties of the Danish Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire: the SDQ assessed for more than 70,000 raters in four different cohorts. PLoS.One., 2012. 7(2): p. e32025.

Niclasen, J., et al., A confirmatory approach to examining the factor structure of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ): A large scale cohort study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 2013. 41(3): p. 355-365.

Niclasen, J. and J. Dammeyer, Psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire and mental health problems among children with hearing loss. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 2016. 21(2): p. 129-140.

Obel, C., et al., The strengths and difficulties questionnaire in the nordic countries. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Supplement, 2004. 13(2): p. II/32-II/39.

Sahuric, A., et al., Differential Parent and Teacher Reports of ADHD Symptoms According to the Child’s Country of Origin: A Quantitative Study From Denmark Exploring the Implication for Diagnosis. Journal of Attention Disorders, 2019.